Immerse yourself in the world of Native American totems, these fascinating wooden sculptures that bear witness to the cultural and spiritual richness of the indigenous peoples of North America. In this article, you will learn about the origins, symbolic meaning, creative process and role of these works of art in preserving First Nations history and culture.

totem of white and red color, damaged by time, a shoot grown on the totem with rays of the sun

History of Native American Totem Poles

Native American totem poles are an ancestral tradition dating back thousands of years. Before the arrival of European explorers, various First Nations were already practicing the art of wood carving, including the Haida, Tlingit, Tsimshian, Kwakiutl and Nuu-chah-nulth. Located in the northwest coast region of Canada and the United States. These indigenous peoples belonged to a common cultural group called the "Northwest Nations."

The totems were primarily carved from red cedar, a tree considered sacred by indigenous peoples due to its medicinal and protective properties. The first totems were used to mark the entrance to a village or a house and often represented totemic animals, such as the eagle, the crow, the bear or the wolf.

Totem poles evolved from burial poles, which were erected to honor the deceased. Over time, they took on increasingly complex and symbolic forms.

The ancestors were thus venerated and their memory preserved.

Totem poles were also used to commemorate important events, mark tribal territories, and represent religious and cultural symbols.

Meaning and symbolism of totems

Each element of a totem pole has a specific meaning, and these sculptures are rich in symbolism. Here is an explanation of the common meaning and symbolism associated with Indian totem poles:

     Representation of ancestors:
         Many Indian totem poles represent revered ancestors, honoring their memory and cultural heritage. Each figure can represent an ancestor or a history of the tribe.

     Sacred animals:
         Animals occupy an important place in the symbolism of totems. Each animal represents specific qualities and is associated with teachings and values.
         For example, the bear can symbolize strength and healing, the wolf loyalty and communication, and the eagle vision and spirituality.

     Nature Spirits:
         Some Indian totems represent nature spirits, such as water, forest or mountain spirits. They are considered guardians of the natural elements.
         Nature spirits are revered for their influence on daily life, hunting, fishing and harvesting.

     Clan Totems:
         Each clan within a tribe may have its own totem, which identifies the clan and its ancestors. Clan totems reinforce the sense of belonging and tribal identity.
         Clan totems can also be used as geographic markers to indicate tribal territories.

Indian totem, black red and green. human and animal form. raw wood
Indian totem, white, black, brown and green with yellow details. human and animal form

Stories and legends:
         Carvings on totem poles often tell stories important to the tribe. These stories are passed down from generation to generation, preserving the history and culture of the community.
         Totems can also represent significant events or heroic exploits.


     Natural elements:
         Natural elements such as earth, water, fire and air are frequently represented in Indian totem poles. They symbolize the close relationship of indigenous peoples with nature.
         These elements are often associated with spiritual powers and vital energies.

     Spirituality:
         Indian totems are intrinsically linked to indigenous spirituality. They serve as means of communication with spiritual forces, ancestors and nature spirits.
         Religious ceremonies and rituals are often associated with the creation and maintenance of totem poles.

     Protection:
         Indian totems are considered spiritual protectors of the tribe, clan or community. They are believed to repel evil forces and provide protection.
         As guardians, totems watch over inhabitants and territories.

In summary, Indian totem poles are works of art loaded with symbolism and cultural and spiritual significance. They embody the rich history, spirituality and teachings of the indigenous peoples of North America, while serving as a valuable link between the past and the present. Each totem tells a unique story and contributes to the preservation of the cultural heritage of these communities.

Sacred animals:

The animals depicted on Indian totem poles have specific meanings and are often chosen to symbolize qualities, values and teachings important to the tribe or clan that uses them. Each animal is associated with unique characteristics and particular roles in the culture and spirituality of the indigenous peoples of North America. Here are some examples of the meaning of common Indian totem animals:

The Eagle: The eagle is often considered a spiritual messenger and a symbol of spiritual vision. It represents the connection between the earthly world and the heavenly world, as well as the search for truth and clarity.

The Bear: The bear symbolizes strength, power and courage. It is associated with healing, family protection and wisdom.

The Wolf: The wolf is the symbol of loyalty, communication, cooperation and perseverance. It also represents family and the pack, highlighting the importance of working together.

The Bison: The bison is a symbol of abundance, prosperity and spirituality. It embodies the connection to Mother Earth and the importance of balance in life.

The Tortoise: The tortoise is associated with stability, perseverance and longevity. It also symbolizes wisdom and seniority.

The Beaver: The beaver is the symbol of creativity, hard work and construction. It represents the importance of ingenuity and community cooperation.

The Raven: The raven is considered a messenger between the physical world and the spiritual world. It is often associated with magic, transformation and knowledge.

Salmon: Salmon is a symbol of perseverance, determination and courage. It is also associated with resilience and persistence in the face of obstacles.

The Heron: The heron is the symbol of patience, grace and balance. It embodies the ability to remain calm and focused, even in difficult situations.

The Werewolf: The werewolf is a legendary creature that can symbolize the power of transformation, duality and mysterious aspects of nature.

It is important to note that the meanings of animals can vary from tribe to tribe, and even within the same tribe, depending on specific traditions and beliefs. Each animal represents a unique set of values and teachings for the tribe that uses it, contributing to the richness of indigenous culture and spirituality.

white and red totem, damaged by time, a shoot grown on the totem

The spirits of nature

The nature spirits depicted on Indian totem poles are spiritual entities that embody natural forces and elements. These spirits play a significant role in the culture and spirituality of the indigenous peoples of North America. Here are some examples of nature spirits commonly depicted on Indian totem poles and their meanings:

     The Spirit of Water:
         The Spirit of Water is associated with rivers, lakes, oceans and rain.
         It represents purification, regeneration, fluidity and abundance.

     The Spirit of the Forest:
         The Spirit of the Forest embodies lush nature, growth, fertility and abundant life.
         It is often associated with the protection of animals and plants.

     The Spirit of the Mountain:
         The Spirit of the Mountain symbolizes stability, strength, serenity and connection with spiritual heights.
         He is considered a guardian of mountains and valleys.

     The Spirit of the Wind:
         The Wind Spirit is associated with winds, storms and the force of the air.
         It represents power, transformation and mobility.

     The Spirit of Fire:
         The Spirit of Fire symbolizes heat, passion, purification and creativity.
         It is often linked to spirituality and inner strength.

     The Spirit of the Earth:
         The Earth Spirit is the guardian of Mother Earth and represents the deep connection with nature.
         He embodies fertility, stability and wisdom.

     The Spirit of Heaven:
         The Spirit of Heaven is associated with the sky, the sun, the moon and the stars.
         It symbolizes vision, spiritual guidance and heavenly light.

     The Spirit of the Aurora Borealis:
         The Spirit of the Northern Lights is linked to the northern lights, to the Northern Lights.
         It represents magic, beauty and wonder at nature.

     The Spirit of the Night:
         The Night Spirit is associated with the darkness and stillness of the night.
         It symbolizes rest, reflection and nocturnal spirituality.

     The Spirit of the Moon:
         The Spirit of the Moon is a guardian of the night and of femininity.
         It is linked to the regulation of natural cycles and intuitive wisdom.

These nature spirits are revered and respected for their influence on daily life, natural cycles and spirituality. They are considered guardians and protectors of the elements that make up the Earth and the universe. The depiction of these spirits on Indian totem poles helps strengthen the connection between indigenous communities and natural forces, while transmitting teachings and values essential to indigenous culture.

zoom detail on a totem, yellow, red and cyan blue

Process of creating a totem

Carving a totem requires exceptional artistic and technical know-how. Indigenous carvers use traditional tools such as knives, gouges and adzes to carve red cedar wood into harmonious and expressive shapes.

The process of creating a totem pole can take several months or even years, depending on the size and complexity of the project. It generally begins with the selection of a suitable tree and continues with the careful study of the stories, legends and family or clan traditions that will be represented on the totem


Creating an Indian totem pole is an artistic and spiritual process that involves careful planning, careful carving, and deep meaning. Here are the general steps in the process of creating an Indian totem pole:

     Design and planning:
         Creating a totem begins with defining its meaning and purpose. What story, what teaching or what message should the totem convey?
         The artist works closely with the community or tribe to understand the needs and wishes of those who will receive the totem.
         Totem pole design begins with sketches and sketches to bring the idea to life.

     Choice of wood and size:
         The wood used to carve the totem pole is usually western red cedar, which is durable and well suited for relief carving.
         The size of the tree trunk or plank of wood is determined based on the final size desired for the totem.

     Preparation of the wood:
         The wood is prepared by removing the bark and sanding it to a smooth surface ready for carving.
         Artists can also treat wood to protect it from weather and insects.

     Sculpture:
         Carving begins by creating the basic shapes of the totem pole. Each figure, animal, or symbol is carved in relief, meaning that it protrudes from the flat surface of the totem.
         Details are added gradually. Each element is precisely carved to represent the character and meaning of the totem.

     Painting and decoration:
         Once the sculpture is completed, the totem can be painted or decorated. The colors and patterns used also have important meaning.
         Traditional colors may vary depending on the tribe or region, but they are generally vibrant and rich in symbolism.

     Ceremony and blessing:
         Before being erected, the totem can be blessed or consecrated during a spiritual ceremony. Prayers and chants are often used to infuse the totem with spiritual power.

     Facility :
         The totem is then installed in the designated location, whether it is a community gathering place, a garden or a sacred space.
         Installation may require mechanical means to safely place the totem upright.

     Continuous meaning:
         Once installed, the totem continues to serve as a spiritual reminder of its message and history. He may be involved in community ceremonies and rituals.

The process of creating an Indian totem pole is a combination of art, spirituality and culture. Each step is carefully executed to convey the meaning and importance of the totem to future generations and the community. Each totem pole is a unique work of art that embodies the history and spirituality of the indigenous peoples of North America.

eagle totem with a majority of black, seen in the clouds

Meaning of colors on a totem

The colors used on an Indian totem pole have important symbolic meaning and can vary depending on the tribe, region and specific traditions. Colors play a vital role in communicating the teachings, stories and values associated with the totem. Here are some common meanings of colors on an Indian totem pole:

     Red :
         Red is often associated with war, strength, vitality and courage.
         It can also represent sacrifice and blood shed for the tribe or community.

     Black :
         Black can symbolize night, mystery, mourning and spirituality.
         It is often used to represent spirits and ancestors.

     White :
         White is the symbol of purity, peace, balance and clarity.
         It is often used to represent wisdom and spirituality.

     Yellow :
         Yellow is associated with light, warmth, knowledge and creativity.
         It can symbolize growth, prosperity and spiritual enlightenment.

     Blue :
         Blue is linked to water, sky and tranquility. It also symbolizes truth and loyalty.
         It can be used to represent spiritual communication and guidance.

     Green :
         Green is associated with nature, growth, fertility and healing.
         It often symbolizes harmony with Mother Earth and regeneration.

     Orange :
         Orange is the color of creativity, joy, energy and vitality.
         It can represent renewal and spiritual enthusiasm.

     Purple :
         Purple is linked to spirituality, meditation, transformation and wisdom.
         It can symbolize mysticism and spiritual elevation.

It is important to note that the meaning of colors can vary from tribe to tribe, and even within the same tribe, depending on specific traditions. The colors are carefully chosen to reinforce the message of the totem and to convey the values and teachings of the indigenous community. Each color combination on a totem pole contributes to its overall symbolism and cultural and spiritual significance.

purple totem in view against high angle view of human and animal faces

Ceremony and blessing of the totem

The ceremony of blessing an Indian totem is an important spiritual act which aims to give the totem a sacred meaning and integrate it into the life of the community. The details of the ceremony may vary from tribe to tribe, but here is a general description of the Indian totem ceremony and blessing process:

     Pre-planning:
         The totem blessing ceremony is carefully planned in advance in collaboration with tribal members, elders and spiritual leaders.
         The intentions of the ceremony, specific rituals and participants are determined.

     Site preparation:
         The place where the totem will be erected is prepared in a ritual manner. It can be cleansed, blessed and consecrated in preparation for the installation of the totem.
         Altars or sacred spaces can be set up for offerings and rituals.

     Community gathering:
         Members of the tribe or community gather for the ceremony. Guests may also be invited to celebrate the event.
         Elders, shamans or spiritual leaders often lead the ceremony.

     Offerings and prayers:
         Sacred offerings are presented to the spirits, ancestors and forces of nature. This may include feathers, tobacco, herbs, food, or other meaningful objects.
         Participants recite prayers and songs to honor the spirits and ask for their blessing.

     Blessing of the totem:
         The totem is blessed by a spiritual leader or shaman. Specific rituals may be performed, such as sprinkling holy water or applying ritual pigments.
         The intentions of the totem, its meaning and its role in the community are explained during the blessing.

     Dance and music:
         The ceremony may include traditional dances, songs and music to celebrate the totem and strengthen its connection to the community.
         The dances can also tell stories or legends related to the totem.

     Installation of the totem:
         After the blessing ceremony, the totem is carefully erected using mechanical means if necessary. The installation is often a solemn and moving moment.

     Final consecration:
         Once the totem is installed, a final blessing can be performed to seal its connection with the earth and the spirits.
         Participants can offer prayers of gratitude and commitment to the totem.

     Community celebration:
         After the ceremony, the community can come together to share a meal or festivities in honor of the totem and to strengthen bonds within the tribe.

The Indian totem pole blessing ceremony is an important occasion for celebration, spiritual connection and cultural preservation. It aims to give the totem its sacred meaning and to ensure its protection and sustainability as a spiritual guardian of the community.

Totems in different regions

Although totem poles are closely associated with the culture of the Northwest Nations, examples of totem poles can also be found in other regions of North America. The Inuit, for example, carve small totems from bone or ivory to celebrate their ancestors and spiritual traditions.

Each region has its own stylistic and symbolic characteristics, reflecting the cultural and artistic diversity of indigenous peoples.

Indian totem poles are found primarily in the Pacific Northwest regions of North America, where many coastal indigenous tribes developed this form of art and spirituality. However, it is important to note that totem poles vary in style, symbolism and tradition from region to region. Here is an overview of the main regions where Indian totem poles are found and their distinctive characteristics:

     Pacific Northwest Coast (British Columbia, Alaska, Washington State):
         This region is famous for its totem poles, which are often elaborate and ornately decorated. Tribes such as the Haida, Tlingit, Kwakiutl and Nuu-chah-nulth are particularly known for their totem poles.
         Northwest Coast totem poles are often characterized by raised wooden carvings, bright colors, and intricate designs.
         They generally represent animals, spirits, ancestors and elements of nature, each with its specific meaning.

     Northwest Plateau (Interior British Columbia, Eastern Washington, Idaho, Montana):
         Totem poles from the Northwest Plateau are often simpler than those from the Northwest Coast, with more refined carvings and less bright colors.
         They are associated with tribes like the Salish, Kootenai and Nez Perce.
         Totems from this region often emphasize elements such as animals, plants and human figures.

     Northern California Coast:
         Native tribes of the Northern California coast, such as the Hupa, Yurok, and Karuk, also created totem poles.
         Totem poles from this region generally feature unique stylistic features, with circular and geometric designs.

     Southwestern United States (Arizona, New Mexico, Utah):
         Native tribes in the Southwestern United States, such as the Navajo and Hopi, have a rich artistic tradition, but totem poles are not part of their traditional cultural traditions.
         However, they have sculptures and art forms unique to their culture, such as the kachinas of the Hopi.

It is important to note that Indian totem poles are not a cultural feature of all indigenous regions of North America. Totem poles are most associated with tribes in the Pacific Northwest, where they have deep meaning as symbols of tribal culture, spirituality, and history. Each region has its own unique art forms, symbolism and traditions that reflect its specific history and culture.

totem with bright colors but which have faded with time
two Indian totems in blue, white and black colors with human and animal faces

Role of totem poles in preserving history and culture

Totem poles play a crucial role in preserving First Nations history and culture. They constitute a living memory of the stories, legends and ancestral teachings that have shaped the identity of these indigenous peoples.

Additionally, totem poles are often the center of traditional ceremonies such as the potlatch, during which clan members gather to honor their ancestors, share gifts, and strengthen community bonds.

     Transmission of stories and legends:
         Indian totems tell stories and legends that are passed down from generation to generation. Each sculpture represents a piece of tribal history or an important lesson.
         These stories may include tales of ancestors, heroic exploits, spiritual teachings, and interactions with nature.

     Conservation of language and oral tradition:
         Totems serve as visual supports for the preservation of indigenous languages. The names of the figures and symbols on the totem poles are often taken from the tribal language, helping to keep these languages alive.
         Oral tradition is strengthened as elders can share stories and knowledge with younger generations using the totems as reference points.

     Strengthening cultural identity:
         Indian totem poles are visible symbols of the cultural identity of indigenous tribes. They remind community members of their roots, history and traditional values.
         Clan totems identify family affiliations and ties, helping to strengthen the social fabric of the tribe.

     Reminder of spiritual teachings:
         Totems are deeply linked to indigenous spirituality. They serve as means of communication with spirits, ancestors and forces of nature.
         Religious ceremonies and rituals are often associated with the creation and maintenance of totems, thus perpetuating traditional spirituality.

     Preservation of crafts and artistic skills:
         Totem pole carving is a form of traditional craftsmanship that is passed down from generation to generation. Indigenous artists continue to perpetuate this tradition by creating new totems.
         The artistic and artisanal skills linked to sculpture, painting and decoration of totems are carefully preserved.

     Valorization of the natural environment:
         Indian totem poles highlight the deep connection between indigenous people and nature. The animals, plants and natural elements represented on the totems remind us of the importance of preserving the environment.
         Totems are often associated with teachings about protecting Mother Earth.

In short, Indian totems are much more than simple wooden sculptures. They are guardians of the history, culture, language, spirituality and identity of the indigenous peoples of North America. They continue to play a vital role in preserving and passing on these cultural aspects to future generations, while serving as witnesses to the richness of Indigenous culture.

eagle sculpture black red white green and light brown

Totems in the modern world

In the modern world, Indian totems have evolved in several ways:

Contemporary Art: Many contemporary Indigenous artists incorporate totemic motifs and themes into their artwork, whether in painting, sculpture, dance, or other forms of artistic expression. These works of art serve to preserve and promote indigenous culture and traditions.

Cultural tourism: Native totem poles have become popular tourist attractions, especially in areas like the Pacific Northwest, where indigenous people are famous for their monumental totem carvings. Visitors can learn about the history, meaning and beliefs associated with these totems.

Symbolism: Indigenous totems are often used as symbols of pride and identity by Indigenous communities and their supporters. They are sometimes used in rights and resistance movements to remind people of the importance of preserving indigenous culture and lands.

Education: Indigenous totem poles are also used in education to educate people about Indigenous cultures and their history. Schools, museums, and educational organizations often incorporate these elements into their curricula.

Environmental Conservation: Many indigenous communities view totem poles as a symbol of their commitment to environmental protection and preservation of natural resources. They are often associated with conservation and sustainable land management efforts.

Crafts and Souvenirs: Totem motifs are frequently used in the creation of crafts, jewelry and souvenirs that are sold as part of tourism and the promotion of indigenous culture.

It is important to note that the use of indigenous totems in the modern world sometimes sparks controversies related to cultural commercialization, cultural reappropriation, and the protection of the rights of indigenous peoples. It is essential to respect indigenous traditions and beliefs

seen from a low angle view of a white, orange and light blue totem

Harmonize the Spiritual and the Decorative: An Indian Totem in Your Interior

Integrating an Indian totem into the decoration of your home can be done harmoniously by choosing decorative elements that complement its style and cultural significance. Here are some decoration styles with which an Indian totem could go:

     Boho or Bohemian style: The boho style is often associated with ethnic and artisanal elements. An Indian totem pole could blend naturally into boho decor with earthy colors, Persian rugs, embroidered cushions, and other ethnic elements.

     Rustic Decor: If your home has rustic decor with wooden elements, natural textiles and nature-inspired colors, a carved wooden Indian totem pole could fit in perfectly.

     Ethnic Decoration: If you already have ethnic decorative elements, such as African masks, Persian rugs, or other objects from around the world, an Indian totem can be added to this ensemble.

     Minimalist Style: You can also opt for a contrast by placing an Indian totem in a room with a minimalist style. This can create an interesting focal point while highlighting the importance of the totem pole.

     Natural Decoration: If your decoration is inspired by nature with indoor plants, natural materials like wood and stone, an Indian totem that evokes nature and animals could be an excellent addition.

     Eclectic Decoration: An Indian totem can also fit into eclectic decoration, which mixes different styles and elements to create a unique look.

     Chalet or Mountain Style: If your home has chalet or mountain decor with wooden elements, warm colors and cozy textiles, an Indian totem pole could add a cultural and spiritual dimension to this space.

part of the left totem

When deciding to place an Indian totem pole in your home, it is essential to choose an appropriate location that respects the cultural significance of the totem pole while also considering the aesthetics of your space. Here are some suggestions for choosing a location:

     Meditation or prayer space: If you have a space dedicated to meditation, prayer or spiritual reflection, a totem can be placed there appropriately to reinforce the spiritual dimension of this space.


     Entrance or foyer wall: Some homeowners choose to place their totem near the entrance to their home, next to the front door or foyer, to welcome visitors and symbolize protection or welcome.


     Decorative corner: You can create a decorative corner dedicated to the totem, where you highlight it surrounded by other decorative elements that complement it, such as rugs, cushions, plants or related works of art.


     Garden or outdoor space: If the totem is designed to be displayed outdoors, you can place it in your garden, on your terrace or in a specially designed outdoor space.


     Center of the room: If the totem is large and you want to make it a centerpiece, you can place it in the center of a room, such as a spacious living room, to create a focal point.


     Bedroom: In some indigenous cultures, totems may have protective meaning. You might consider placing them in a bedroom to symbolize protection and security.

part of the right totem

Discover the cultural and spiritual depth of the indigenous peoples of North America by acquiring one of our unique Indian totem poles. Each totem pole is more than just a decoration, it is a window into an ancient culture, a rich history, and a connection with nature.

By choosing a totem pole from us, you directly support indigenous artisans while honoring their traditions. These works of art bring a spiritual dimension to your space, symbolizing protection, wisdom, or gratitude towards nature.

Transform your home into an inspiring place respectful of cultural diversity by integrating an Indian totem. Come discover our carefully chosen selection and let these ancestral symbols enrich your daily life. Join us on this cultural and spiritual adventure today.


Thank you for reading to the end this article dedicated to Native American totems.

Would you like to share your experience with other readers? Tell an anecdote related to Indian totems? Or maybe you need advice?

Please feel free to leave a comment or answer someone else's question. This blog is also a place for exchange and discussion.

See you soon !

4 Indian colored totems

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